Science of Skin

Skin Conditions

Common skin conditions

The most common afflictions of the skin.

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Pigmentary skin conditions

Conditions affecting pigment (melanin) production in skin.

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Rare skin conditions

Skin afflictions affecting fewer than 1 in 2,000 people.

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Skin cancer

Pre-malignancies and malignancies of the skin.

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Viral skin conditions

Skin afflictions caused by viral infections.

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Snapshot Other common terms: CEP, Gunther’s disease, Uroporphyrinogen III synthase deficiency, UROS deficiency, Congenital porphyria, Congenital hematoporphyria, Erythropoietic uroporphyria ICD-10 classification: E80.0 Prevalence: Extremely rare; less than 200 cases reported. Usually manifests during infancy or early childhood. Causes: Genetic mutation in the UROS gene leading to reduced enzyme function. Symptoms: Symptoms may include: blistering, scarring, necrosis or excessive hair growth on light-exposed skin; disfiguration of the ears and nose; loss of fingers; anaemia; red-stained teeth; pink/red coloured urine and enlarged spleen. Treatments/cures: Treatment with blood transfusions, splenectomy, oral sorbents, beta-carotene…
Snapshot Other common terms: Malignant melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, skin cancer, tumour or neoplasm of the skin. ICD-10 classification: C43 Prevalence: Common; varies geographically. 1 in 25 Australians, 1 in 5000 Americans and Europeans. Causes/ Risk factors: Dysplastic nevi, large number of moles, individuals with family or personal history of melanoma; over the age of 50 and with certain diseases or skin type (fair complexion, sensitive or freckly skin), ultraviolet radiation. Other causes unknown. Symptoms: Usually presents as pigmented lesion on the skin, may also appear colourless and in other areas…
Snapshot Other common terms: Acne vulgaris, pimples, zits, whiteheads, blackheads ICD-10 classification: L70.0 Prevalence: Very common; 95-100% of adolescent boys, 83-85% of adolescent girls Causes: Oil, dirt and bacteria build up in the skin. Family history, sweating, stress, certain cosmetics, hormonal changes and certain medications are among the causes of acne. Recent studies have shown that foods (including fatty foods, chocolate and other dairy) do not play a role in causing acne. Symptoms: Blackheads, whiteheads and inflammatory papules and pustules on the skin, most commonly on the face and shoulders,…
Snapshot Other common terms: AK, Solar Keratosis, SK, senile keratosis ICD-10 classification: L57.0 Prevalence: Very common; approximately 50% of the global population. Higher in fair skinned populations. Causes: Chronic exposure to sunlight. Can be accelerated by immune suppression. Symptoms: Dry, rough or scaly lesions on skin generally 2-6mm in diameter. Can take on ‘horned’ look. Can progress into squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer. Treatments/cures: Tumour removal (surgery or cryotherapy), topical therapies, photodynamic therapy. Differential diagnosis: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer Actinic Keratoses (AKs) are collections of abnormal skin cells…
Snapshot Other common terms: AP, Hutchinson prurigo ICD-10 classification: Not defined, L55-59 Prevalence: Unknown. More common in Latin and Indigenous Americans Causes: Not well understood. Suggested that an immune-mediated response to UV light is responsible. Symptoms: Extremely itchy skin rash, red and inflamed bumps (papules), thickened patches (plaques) and/or lumps (nodules) following exposure of skin to sunlight. Treatments/cures: In some cases, actinic prurigo may resolve itself. Topical steroids, emollients, phototherapy, thalidomine and oral immunosuppressants. Differential diagnosis: Polymorphous light eruption, prurigo nodularis, lupus Actinic Prurigo (AP) is a rare chronic, idiopathic…
Snapshot Other common terms: Sub-types: oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) types 1, 2, 3 and 4, ocular albinism (OA), Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS), Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS), and Griscelli Syndrome (GS). ICD-10 classification: E70.3 Prevalence: Varies according to sub-types from between 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 Causes: Genetic Treatments/cures: Cannot be cured. Sun avoidance should be practiced. Genetic counseling offered to parents and treatment of ocular issues. Differential diagnosis: vitiligo, Waardenburg syndrome Albinism is term used to describe a number of inherited genetic conditions that occur when the body is unable to produce or distribute melanin,…
Snapshot Other common terms: AD, atopic eczema, eczema ICD-10 classification:L20.0, L30.0 Prevalance: Varies between populations from 2-20% of total population Symptoms: Blackheads, whiteheads and inflammatory papules and pustules on the skin, most commonly on the face and shoulders, but can occur anywhere. Severe acne can causes scarring of the skin. Treatments/cures: A range of over the counter and prescription medications. Antibiotics and hormonal therapies in moderate-severe cases. Chemical skin peeling, scar and cyst removal or photodynamic therapy in very severe cases. Differential diagnosis: Allergic reactions, seborrheic dermatitis Atopic Dermatitis Atopic…
Snapshot Other common terms: BCC, BCC skin cancer, non-melanoma skin cancer, NMSC ICD-10 classification: C44.0 Prevalence: 75% of all skin cancers are basal cell carcinomas. Much higher in fair skinned populations. 1600:100,000 in Australia, 40-80:100,000 in European countries, approx 300:100,000 in USA Causes: Chronic UV exposure light is believed to play a role, along with genetic predispositions (fair skin, blue/green eyes, red/blonde hair). X-rays, arsenic and coal tar derivatives. Symptoms: Skin cancer in basal cells of the skin. Generally a bump or skin growth, or it could be flat or…
For more on CLINUVEL's clinical program for EPP, click here. Snapshot Other common terms: EPP, protoporphyria, erythropoietic porphyria ICD-10 classification: E80.0 Prevalence: Rare; between 1:58,000-200,000. Estimates of between 5000-10,000 globally Causes: Inherited disease; defective enzyme causes inability to properly produce haem (heme). Symptoms: Phototoxicity: swelling, burning, itching and redness of the skin, occurring during or after exposure to sunlight, including light passing through windows. Liver toxicity in 5% of cases. Microcytic anaemia can occur. Treatments/cures: None proven fully effective to date. Phototoxicity can be avoided by complete avoidance of sunlight…
Snapshot Other common terms: Cold sores, herpes, genital herpes, HSV ICD-10 classification: A60, asrc="plugins/editors/jce/tiny_mce/themes/advanced/langs/en.js?version=156" target="_blank" href="http:/>B00, P35.2 Prevalence: HSV1 56-76% of general population, HSV2 23-33% of general population Causes: Direct contact infection; genital herpes (HSV2) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) Symptoms: Fluid-filled blisters on and around the site of infection. Treatments/cures: Cannot be cured. Treatment with guanosine analogues is common. Introduction Herpes Simplex Virus magnified Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (called cold sores and genital herpes depending on the site of infection) is a common infection which results from…
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